The learning environment presents multiple perspectives on the content, is complex and ill-defined, and emphasizes the construction of knowledge by the learner. In animal models, cognitive flexibility generally refers to the ability to switch a behavioral response according to the context of a situation (Scott, 1962 ). And in restructured contexts, for various purposes, and from different conceptual perspectives. A synthesized research definition of cognitive flexibility is a switch in thinking, whether that is specifically based on a switch in rules or broadly based on a need to switch one's previous beliefs or thoughts to new situations. Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Themes of Advanced Knowledge Acquisition Where has our research on the problems of advanced knowledge acquisition led us? When students are working through problem-solving activities they might have to apply multiple concepts or ways of thinking to find a solution. 2003). Spiro and Jehng explained that cognitive flexibility means that students have the ability to restructure their knowledge as a response to the cognitive demands of various learning situations. Godshalk, Veronica M., Douglas M. Harvey, Leslie Moller (2004). Central to its argument is the claim that most of the variance on theory-of-mind tasks can be attributed to the development of flexible perspective taking. Attempts at validation lead majority members to discover new dimensions of the-S (),, AND. Definition of Cognitive flexibility in the Definitions.net dictionary. the constructive nature of understanding; the complex and ill-structured features of many, if not most, knowledge domains; a theory of learning that addresses known patterns of learning failure. Example. LEA restricted access, The educational technology and digital learning wiki. This article or chapter is incomplete and its contents need further attention. Cognitive Flexibility Theory is a prescriptive instructional design theory which suggests that non-linear learning environments such as hypertext or hypermedia support complex learning and avoidance of oversimplification in learning. In other words, learners must be flexible in their understanding of a topic to apply important concepts.”, “In summary: Ill-structured aspects of knowledge pose problems for advanced knowledge acquisition that are remedied by the principles of Cognitive Flexibility Theory. Extensive research has been done on this theory, particularly in regards to children and the way they adapt in classroom settings. Spiro, R. J. The Cognitive Flexibility Theory, introduced by Spiro, Feltovich, and Coulson in 1988, is about how learning takes place in “complex” and “ill-structured domains”. © 2021 Copyright Discourses on Learning in Education. Please cite this article as: defined as the ability to switch one’s thinking (cognition) (or train of thought) as an adaptation to the demands of stimuli Often times, these beliefs and knowledge also restrict the recognition of new information (Spiro, 1988). Cognitive flexibility, constructivism, and hypertext: Random access instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. Cognitive flexibility has been described as the mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. This article is filled with a lot of background information to help you to build a strong foundation. Cognitive flexibility resides at the intersection of awareness, adaptability and confidence. If you’re unfamiliar with Cognitive Flexibility (CF), it is essentially the brain’s ability and ease to switch one’s thinking (or train of thought) from one task to another in order to respond or adapt to new stimuli. 1. We refer to the principled use of flexible features inherent in computers to produce nonlinear learning environments as Random Access Instruction (Spiro & Jehng, 1990).". The program provides a number of different clinical cases which students must diagnose and treat using various sources of information available (including advice from experts). Cognitive Flexibility Theory (CFT) suggests that deep learning requires learners to engage with new content from multiple perspectives and in flexible ways of thinking. Cognitive flexibility also involves the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge in a new way. Knowledge is … repertoire of established facts, Knowing is … flexible application of understandings, Learner is … a meaning-maker (individual). The goal is for the learner to understand the interconnection of domain concepts and to avoid "oversimplification" and "rigid" thinking regarding the content area. In addition, research pertaining to adults and elders is becoming more and more popular of an interest for study on this theory. The Role of Learning Tasks on Attitude Change Using Cognitive Flexibility Hypertext Systems, Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13 (4) 507-526. In particular, multidimensional and nonlinear hypertext systems, if appropriately designed to take into account all of the considerations discussed above, have the power to convey ill-structured aspects of knowledge domains and to promote features of cognitive flexibility in ways that traditional learning environments (textbooks, lectures, computer-based drill) could not (although such traditional media can be very successful in other contexts or for other purposes). Cognitive flexibility is the human ability to adapt the cognitive processing strategies to face new and unex-pected conditions in the environment (Cañas et al. By seeing multiple representations of the same phenomenon learners develop the mental scaffolding necessary for considering novel applications within the knowledge domain. Learn more in: Examining the Effectiveness of … Research on the Cognitive Flexibility Theory … Example: Jonassen, Ambruso & Olesen (1992) describe an application of cognitive flexibility theory to the design of a hypertext program on transfusion medicine. Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: Theory and technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. Non-Trivial Constructivisms encompass a range of learning theories that invoke a “learning as construing” – vs. a “learning as constructing” – metaphor. CF is sometimes referred to as task switching, but don’t get this confused with multitasking (which, as it’s branded, doesn’t actually exist). & Jehng, J. C. (1990). Jonassen, Ambruso & Olesen (1992) describe an application of cognitive flexibility theory to the design of a hypertext program on transfusion medicine. Information and translations of Cognitive flexibility in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. They stated that cognitive flexibility is the ability to restructure knowledge in order to adapt and make use of … Spiro, R. J., Feltovich, P. J., Jacobson, M. J., & Coulson, R. L. (1992). In essence, it’s a theory that strives to determine how the human mind can obtain and manage knowledge and how it restructures our existing knowledge base, based on the new information received. The Cognitive Flexibility Theory, introduced by Spiro, Feltovich, and Coulson in 1988, is about how learning takes place in “complex” and “ill-structured domains”. The construction of knowledge by the learner technology and digital learning wiki K. ( ). Is seen in terms of integration of new information ( Spiro, Richard L. and. 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